Concurrent computations resemble conversations. In a conversation, participants direct utterances at others and, as the conversation evolves, exploit the known common context to advance the conversation. Similarly, collaborating software components share knowledge with each other in order to make progress as a group towards a common goal.
This dissertation studies concurrency from the perspective of cooperative knowledge-sharing, taking the conversational exchange of knowledge as a central concern in the design of concurrent programming languages. In doing so, it makes five contributions:
- It develops the idea of a common dataspace as a medium for knowledge exchange among concurrent components, enabling a new approach to concurrent programming.
While dataspaces loosely resemble both “fact spaces” from the world of Linda-style languages and Erlang's collaborative model, they significantly differ in many details.
- It offers the first crisp formulation of cooperative, conversational knowledge-exchange as a mathematical model.
- It describes two faithful implementations of the model for two quite different languages.
- It proposes a completely novel suite of linguistic constructs for organizing the internal structure of individual actors in a conversational setting.
The combination of dataspaces with these constructs is dubbed Syndicate.
- It presents and analyzes evidence suggesting that the proposed techniques and constructs combine to simplify concurrent programming.
The dataspace concept stands alone in its focus on representation and manipulation of conversational frames and conversational state and in its integral use of explicit epistemic knowledge. The design is particularly suited to integration of general-purpose I/O with otherwise-functional languages, but also applies to actor-like settings more generally.
Networking is interprocess communication.
—Robert Metcalfe, 1972, quoted in Day (2008)
I am deeply grateful to the many, many people who have supported, taught, and encouraged me over the past seven years.
My heartfelt thanks to my advisor, Matthias Felleisen. Matthias, it has been an absolute privilege to be your student. Without your patience, insight and willingness to let me get the crazy ideas out of my system, this work would not have been possible. My gratitude also to the members of my thesis committee, Mitch Wand, Sam Tobin-Hochstadt, and Jan Vitek. Sam in particular helped me convince Matthias that there might be something worth looking into in this concurrency business. I would also like to thank Olin Shivers for providing early guidance during my studies.
Thanks also to my friends and colleagues from the Programming Research Lab, including Claire Alvis, Leif Andersen, William Bowman, Dan Brown, Sam Caldwell, Stephen Chang, Ben Chung, Andrew Cobb, Ryan Culpepper, Christos Dimoulas, Carl Eastlund, Spencer Florence, Oli Flückiger, Dee Glaze, Ben Greenman, Brian LaChance, Ben Lerner, Paley Li, Max New, Jamie Perconti, Gabriel Scherer, Jonathan Schuster, Justin Slepak, Vincent St-Amour, Paul Stansifer, Stevie Strickland, Asumu Takikawa, Jesse Tov, and Aaron Turon. Sam Caldwell deserves particular thanks for being the second ever Syndicate programmer and for being willing to pick up the ideas of Syndicate and run with them.
Many thanks to Alex Warth and Yoshiki Ohshima, who invited me to intern at CDG Labs with a wonderful research group during summer and fall 2014, and to John Day, whose book helped motivate me to return to academia. Thanks also to the DARPA CRASH program and to several NSF grants that helped to fund my PhD research.
I wouldn't have made it here without crucial interventions over the past few decades from a wide range of people. Nigel Bree hooked me on Scheme in the early '90s, igniting a lifelong interest in functional programming. A decade later, while working at a company called LShift, my education as a computer scientist truly began when Matthias Radestock and Greg Meredith introduced me to the -calculus and many related ideas. Andy Wilson broadened my mind with music, philosophy and political ideas both new and old. A few years later, Alexis Richardson showed me the depth and importance of distributed systems as we developed new ideas about messaging middleware and programming languages while working together on RabbitMQ. My colleagues at LShift were instrumental to the development of the ideas that ultimately led to this work. My thanks to all of you. In particular, I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to my good friend Michael Bridgen. Michael, the discussions we have had over the years contributed to this work in so many ways that I'm still figuring some of them out.
Life in Boston wouldn't have been the same without the friendship and hospitality of Scott and Megs Stevens. Thank you both.
Finally, I'm grateful to my family. The depth of my feeling prevents me from adequately conveying quite how grateful I am. Thank you Mum, Dad, Karly, Casey, Sabrina, and Blyss. Each of you has made an essential contribution to the person I've become, and I love you all. Thank you to the Yates family and to Warren, Holden and Felix for much-needed distraction and moments of zen in the midst of the write-up. But most of all, thank you to Donna. You're my person.
- 2Philosophy and Overview of the Syndicate Design
- 2.1Cooperating by sharing knowledge
- 2.2Knowledge types and knowledge flow
- 2.3Unpredictability at run-time
- 2.4Unpredictability in the design process
- 2.5Syndicate's approach to concurrency
- 2.6Syndicate design principles
- 2.7On the name “Syndicate”
- 3Approaches to Coordination
- 3.1A concurrency design landscape
- 3.2Shared memory
- 3.4Tuplespaces and databases
- 3.5The fact space model
- 3.6Surveying the landscape
- 4Computational Model I: The Dataspace Model
- 4.1Abstract dataspace model syntax and informal semantics
- 4.2Formal semantics of the dataspace model
- 4.3Cross-layer communication
- 4.4Messages versus assertions
- 4.6Incremental assertion-set maintenance
- 4.7Programming with the incremental protocol
- 4.8Styles of interaction
- 5Computational Model II: Syndicate
- 5.1Abstract Syndicate/λ syntax and informal semantics
- 5.2Formal semantics of Syndicate/λ
- 5.3Interpretation of events
- 5.4Interfacing Syndicate/λ to the dataspace model
- 5.5Well-formedness and Errors
- 5.6Atomicity and isolation
- 5.7Derived forms: and
- 6Syndicate/rkt Tutorial
- 6.1Installation and brief example
- 6.2The structure of a running program: ground dataspace, driver actors
- 6.3Expressions, values, mutability, and data types
- 6.4Core forms
- 6.5Derived and additional forms
- 6.6Ad-hoc assertions
- 7.1Representing Assertion Sets
- 7.1.2Semi-structured assertions & wildcards
- 7.1.3Assertion trie syntax
- 7.1.4Compiling patterns to tries
- 7.1.5Representing Syndicate data structures with assertion tries
- 7.1.7Set operations
- 7.1.10Implementation considerations
- 7.1.11Evaluation of assertion tries
- 7.1.12Work related to assertion tries
- 7.2Implementing the dataspace model
- 7.2.2Patches and multiplexors
- 7.2.3Processes and behavior functions
- 7.3Implementing the full Syndicate design
- 7.4Programming tools
- 7.4.1Sequence diagrams
- 7.4.2Live program display
- 8Idiomatic Syndicate
- 8.1Protocols and Protocol Design
- 8.2Built-in protocols
- 8.3Shared, mutable state
- 8.4I/O, time, timers and timeouts
- 8.5Logic, deduction, databases, and elaboration
- 8.5.2Backward-chaining and Hewitt's “Turing” Syllogism
- 8.5.3External knowledge sources: The file-system driver
- 8.5.4Procedural knowledge and Elaboration: “Make”
- 8.5.5Incremental truth-maintenance and Aggregation: All-pairs shortest paths
- 8.5.6Modal reasoning: Advertisement
- 8.6Dependency resolution and lazy startup: Service presence
- 8.7Transactions: RPC, Streams, Memoization
- 8.8Dataflow and reactive programming
- 9Evaluation: Patterns
- 9.2Eliminating and simplifying patterns
- 9.3Simplification as key quality attribute
- 9.4Event broadcast, the observer pattern and state replication
- 9.5The state pattern
- 9.6The cancellation pattern
- 9.7The demand-matcher pattern
- 9.8Actor-language patterns
- 10Evaluation: Performance
- 10.1Reasoning about routing time and delivery time
- 10.2Measuring abstract Syndicate performance
- 10.3Concrete Syndicate performance
- 11.1Placing Syndicate on the map
- 11.2Placing Syndicate in a wider context
- 11.2.1Functional I/O
- 11.2.2Functional operating systems
- 11.2.3Process calculi
- 11.2.4Formal actor models
- 11.2.5Messaging middleware
- 11.3Limitations and challenges
- 12.2Next steps
- ASyndicate/js Syntax
- BCase study: IRC server
- CPolyglot Syndicate
- DRacket Dataflow Library
Concurrency and its constant companions, communication and coordination, are ubiquitous in computing. From warehouse-sized datacenters through multi-processor operating systems to interactive or multi-threaded programs, coroutines, and even the humble function, every computation exists in some context and must exchange information with that context in a prescribed manner at a prescribed time. Functions receive inputs from and transmit outputs to their callers; impure functions may access or update a mutable store; threads update shared memory and transfer control via locks; and network services send and receive messages to and from their peers.
Each of these acts of communication contributes to a shared understanding of the relevant knowledge required to undertake some task common to the involved parties. That is, the purpose of communication is to share state: to replicate information from peer to peer. After all, a communication that does not affect a receiver's view of the world literally has no effect. Put differently, each task shared by a group of components entails various acts of communication in the frame of an overall conversation, each of which conveys knowledge to components that need it. Each act of communication contributes to the overall conversational state involved in the shared task. Some of this conversational state relates to what must be or has been done; some relates to when it must be done. Traditionally, the “what” corresponds closely to “communication,” and the “when” to “coordination.”
The central challenge in programming for a concurrent world is the unpredictability of a component's interactions with its context. Pure, total functions are the only computations whose interactions are completely predictable: a single value in leads to a terminating computation which yields a single value out. Introduction of effects such as non-termination, exceptions, or mutability makes function output unpredictable. Broadening our perspective to coroutines makes even the inputs to a component unpredictable: an input may arrive at an unexpected time or may not arrive at all. Threads may observe shared memory in an unexpected state, or may manipulate locks in an unexpected order. Networks may corrupt, discard, duplicate, or reorder messages; network services may delegate tasks to third parties, transmit out-of-date information, or simply never reply to a request.
This seeming chaos is intrinsic: unpredictability is a defining characteristic of concurrency. To remove the one would eliminate the other. However, we shall not declare defeat. If we cannot eliminate harmful unpredictability, we may try to minimize it on one hand, and to cope with it on the other. We may seek a model of computation that helps programmers eliminate some forms of unpredictability and understand those that remain.
To this end, I have developed new programming language design, Syndicate, which rests on a new model of concurrent computation, the dataspace model. In this dissertation I will defend the thesis that
This claim must be broken down before it can be understood.
- Mechanism for sharing state.
- The dataspace model is, at heart, a mechanism for sharing state among neighboring concurrent components. The design focuses on mechanisms for sharing state because effective mechanisms for communication and coordination follow as special cases. Chapter 2 motivates the Syndicate design, and chapter 3 surveys a number of existing linguistic approaches to coordination and communication, outlining the multi-dimensional design space which results. Chapter 4 then presents a vocabulary for and formal model of dataspaces along with basic correctness theorems.
- Linguistic mechanism.
- The dataspace model, taken alone, explains communication and coordination among components but does not offer the programmer any assistance in structuring the internals of components. The full Syndicate design presents the primitives of the dataspace model to the programmer by way of new language constructs. These constructs extend the underlying programming language used to write a component, bridging between the language's own computational model and the style of interaction offered by the dataspace model. Chapter 5 presents these new constructs along with an example of their application to a simple programming language.
- A design that cannot be implemented is useless; likewise an implementation that cannot be made performant enough to be fit-for-purpose. Chapter 6 examines an example of the integration of the Syndicate design with an existing host language. Chapter 7 discusses the key data structures, algorithms, and implementation techniques that allowed construction of the two Syndicate prototypes, Syndicate/rkt and Syndicate/js.
- Chapter 8 argues informally for the effectiveness of the programming model by explaining idiomatic Syndicate style through dissection of example protocols and programs. Chapter 9 goes further, arguing that Syndicate eliminates various patterns prevalent in concurrent programming, thereby simplifying programming tasks. Chapter 10 discusses the performance of the Syndicate design, first in terms of the needs of the programmer and second in terms of the actual measured characteristics of the prototype implementations.
- Chapter 11 places Syndicate within the map sketched in chapter 3, showing that it occupies a point in design space not covered by other models of concurrency.
Concurrency is ubiquitous in computing, from the very smallest scales to the very largest. This dissertation presents Syndicate as an approach to concurrency within a non-distributed program. However, the design has consequences that may be of use in broader settings such as distributed systems, network architecture, or even operating system design. Chapter 12 concludes the dissertation, sketching possible connections between Syndicate and these areas that may be examined more closely in future work.
Computer Scientists don't do philosophy.
Taking seriously the idea that concurrency is fundamentally about knowledge-sharing has consequences for programming language design. In this chapter I will explore the ramifications of the idea and outline a mechanism for communication among and coordination of concurrent components that stems directly from it.
Let us step back from consideration of specific conversational mechanisms, and take a broader viewpoint. Seen from a distance, all these approaches to communication and coordination appear to be means to an end: namely, they are means by which relevant knowledge is shared among cooperating components. Knowledge-sharing is then simply the means by which they cooperate in performing their common task.
Focusing on knowledge-sharing allows us to ask high-level questions that are unavailable to us when we consider specific communication and coordination mechanisms alone:
- K1What does it mean to cooperate by sharing knowledge?
- K2What general sorts of facts do components know?
- K3What do they need to know to do their jobs?
It also allows us to frame the inherent unpredictability of concurrent systems in terms of knowledge. Unpredictability arises in many different ways. Components may crash, or suffer errors or exceptions during their operation. They may freeze, deadlock, enter unintentional infinite loops, or merely take an unreasonable length of time to reply. Their actions may interleave arbitrarily. New components may join and existing components may leave the group without warning. Connections to the outside world may fail. Demand for shared resources may wax and wane. Considering all these issues in terms of knowledge-sharing allows us to ask:
- K4Which forms of knowledge-sharing are robust in the face of such unpredictability?
- K5What knowledge helps the programmer mitigate such unpredictability?
Beyond the unpredictability of the operation of a concurrent system, the task the system is intended to perform can itself change in unpredictable ways. Unforeseen program change requests may arrive. New features may be invented, demanding new components, new knowledge, and new connections and relationships between existing components. Existing relationships between components may be altered. Again, our knowledge-sharing perspective allows us to raise the question:
- K6Which forms of knowledge-sharing are robust to and help mitigate the impact of changes in the goals of a program?
In the remainder of this chapter, I will examine these questions generally and will outline Syndicate's position on them in particular, concluding with an overview of the Syndicate approach to concurrency. We will revisit these questions in chapter 3 when we make a detailed examination of and comparison with other forms of knowledge-sharing embodied in various programming languages and systems.
We have identified conversation among concurrent components abstractly as a mechanism for knowledge-sharing, which itself is the means by which components work together on a common task. However, taken alone, the mere exchange of knowledge is insufficient to judge whether an interaction is cooperative, neutral, or perhaps even malicious. As programmers, we will frequently wish to orchestrate multiple components, all of which are under our control, to cooperate with each other. From time to time, we must equip our programs with the means for responding to non-cooperative, possibly-malicious interactions with components that are not under our control. To achieve these goals, an understanding of what it is to be cooperative is required.
H. Paul Grice, a philosopher of language, proposed the cooperative principle of conversation in order to make sense of the meanings people derive from utterances they hear:
- Cooperative Principle (CP).
- Make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. (Grice 1975)
He further proposed four conversational maxims as corollaries to the CP, presented in figure 1. It is important to note the character of these maxims:
They are not sociological generalizations about speech, nor they are moral prescriptions or proscriptions on what to say or communicate. Although Grice presented them in the form of guidelines for how to communicate successfully, I think they are better construed as presumptions about utterances, presumptions that we as listeners rely on and as speakers exploit. (Bach 2005)
Grice's principle and maxims can help us tackle question K1 in two ways. First, they can be read directly as constructive advice for designing conversational protocols for cooperative interchange of information. Second, they can attune us to particular families of design mistakes in such protocols that result from cases in which these “presumptions” are invalid. This can in turn help us come up with guidelines for protocol design that help us avoid such mistakes. Thus, we may use these maxims to judge a given protocol among concurrent components, asking ourselves whether each communication that a component makes lives up to the demands of each maxim.
Grice introduces various ways of failing to fulfill a maxim, and their consequences:
- Unostentatious violation of a maxim, which can mislead peers.
- Explicit opting-out of participation in a maxim or even the Cooperative Principle in general, making plain a deliberate lack of cooperation.
- Conflict between maxims: for example, there may be tension between speaking some necessary (Quantity(1)) truth (Quality(1)), and a lack of evidence in support of it (Quality(2)), which may lead to shaky conclusions down the line.
- Flouting of a maxim: blatant, obviously deliberate violation of a conversational maxim, which “exploits” the maxim, with the intent to force a hearer out of the usual frame of the conversation and into an analysis of some higher-order conversational context.
Many, but not all, of these can be connected to analogous features of computer communication protocols. In this dissertation, I am primarily assuming a setting involving components that deliberately aim to cooperate. We will not dwell on deliberate violation of conversational maxims. However, we will from time to time see that consideration of accidental violation of conversational maxims is relevant to the design and analysis of computer protocols. For example, Grice writes that
[the] second maxim [of Quantity] is disputable; it might be said that to be overinformative is not a transgression of the [Cooperative Principle] but merely a waste of time. However, it might be answered that such overinformativeness may be confusing in that it is liable to raise side issues; and there may also be an indirect effect, in that the hearers may be misled as a result of thinking that there is some particular point in the provision of the excess of information. (Grice 1975)
This directly connects to (perhaps accidental) excessive bandwidth use (“waste of time”) as well as programmer errors arising from exactly the misunderstanding that Grice describes.
It may seem surprising to bring ideas from philosophy of language to bear in the setting of cooperating concurrent computerized components. However, Grice himself makes the connection between his specific conversational maxims and “their analogues in the sphere of transactions that are not talk exchanges,” drawing on examples of shared tasks such as cooking and car repair, so it does not seem out of place to apply them to the design and analysis of our conversational computer protocols. This is particularly the case in light of Grice's ambition to explain the Cooperative Principle as “something that it is reasonable for us to follow, that we should not abandon.” (Grice 1975 p. 48; emphasis in original)
The CP makes mention of the “purpose or direction” of a given conversation. We may view the fulfillment of the task shared by the group of collaborating components as the purpose of the conversation. Each individual component in the group has its own role to play and, therefore, its own “personal” goals in working toward successful completion of the shared task. Kitcher (1990), writing in the context of the social structure of scientific collaboration, introduces the notions of personal and impersonal epistemic intention. We may adapt these ideas to our setting, explicitly drawing out the notion of a role within a conversational protocol. A cooperative component “wishes” for the group as a whole to succeed: this is its “impersonal” epistemic intention. It also has goals for itself, “personal” epistemic intentions, namely to successfully perform its roles within the group.
Finally, the CP is a specific example of the general idea of epistemic reasoning, logical reasoning incorporating knowledge and beliefs about one's own knowledge and beliefs, and about the knowledge and beliefs of other parties (Fagin et al. 2004; Hendricks and Symons 2015; van Ditmarsch, van der Hoek and Kooi 2017). However, epistemic reasoning has further applications in the design of conversational protocols among concurrent components, which brings us to our next topic.
The conversational state that accumulates as part of a collaboration among components can be thought of as a collection of facts. First, there are those facts that define the frame of a conversation. These are exactly the facts that identify the task at hand; we label them “framing knowledge”, and taken together, they are the “conversational frame” for the conversation whose purpose is completion of a particular shared task. Just as tasks can be broken down into more finely-focused subtasks, so can conversations be broken down into sub-conversations. In these cases, part of the conversational state of an overarching interaction will describe a frame for each sub-conversation, within which corresponding sub-conversational state exists. The knowledge framing a conversation acts as a bridge between it and its wider context, defining its “purpose” in the sense of the CP. Figure 2 schematically depicts these relationships.
Some facts define conversational frames, but every shared fact is contextualized within some conversational frame. Within a frame, then, some facts will pertain directly to the task at hand. These, we label “domain knowledge”. Generally, such facts describe global aspects of the common problem that remain valid as we shift our perspective from participant to participant. Other facts describe the knowledge or beliefs of particular components. These, we label “epistemic knowledge”.
For example, as a file transfer progresses, the actual content of the file does not change: it remains a global fact that byte number 300 (say) has value 255, no matter whether the transfer has reached that position or not. The content of the file is thus “domain knowledge”. However, as the transfer proceeds and acknowledgements of receipt stream from the recipient to the transmitter, the transmitter's beliefs about the receiver's knowledge change. Each successive acknowledgement leads the transmitter to believe that the receiver has learned a little more of the file's content. Information on the progress of the transfer is thus “epistemic knowledge”.
If domain knowledge is “what is true in the world”, and epistemic knowledge is “who knows what”, the third piece of the puzzle is “who needs to know what” in order to effectively make a contribution to the shared task at hand. We will use the term “interests” as a name for those facts that describe knowledge that a component needs to learn. Knowledge of the various interests in a group allows collaborators to plan their communication acts according to the needs of individual components and the group as a whole. In conversations among people, interests are expressed as questions; in a computational setting, they are conveyed by requests, queries, or subscriptions.
The interests of components in a concurrent system thus direct the flow of knowledge within the system. The interests of a group may be constant, or may vary with time.
When interest is fixed, remaining the same for a certain class of shared task, the programmer can plan paths for communication up front. For example, in the context of a single TCP connection, the interests of the two parties involved are always the same: each peer wishes to learn what the other has to say. As a consequence, libraries implementing TCP can bake in the assumption that clients will wish to access received data. As another example, a programmer charged with implementing a request counter in a web server may choose to use a simple global integer variable, safe in the knowledge that the only possible item of interest is the current value of the counter.
A changing, dynamic set of interests, however, demands development of a vocabulary for communicating changes in interest during a conversation. For example, the query language of a SQL database is just such a vocabulary. The server's initial interest is in what the client is interested in, and is static, but the client's own interests vary with each request, and must be conveyed anew in the context of each separate interaction. Knowledge about dynamically-varying interests allows a group of collaborating components to change its interaction patterns on the fly.
With this ontology in hand, we may answer questions K2 and K3. Each task is delimited by a conversational frame. Within that frame, components share knowledge related to the domain of the task at hand, and knowledge related to the knowledge, beliefs, needs, and interests of the various participants in the collaborative group. Conversations are recursively structured by shared knowledge of (sub-)conversational frames, defined in terms of any or all of the types of knowledge we have discussed. Some conversations take place at different levels within a larger frame, bridging between tasks and their subtasks. Components are frequently engaged in multiple tasks, and thus often participate in multiple conversations at once. The knowledge a component needs to do its job is provided to it when it is created, or later supplied to it in response to its interests.
A full answer to question K4 must wait until the survey of communication and coordination mechanisms of chapter 3. However, this dissertation will show that at least one form of knowledge-sharing, the Syndicate design, encourages robust handling of many kinds of concurrency-related unpredictability.
The epistemological approach we have taken to questions K1–K3 suggests some initial steps toward an answer to question K5. In order for a program to be robust in the face of unpredictable events, it must first be able to detect these events, and second be able to muster an appropriate response to them. Certain kinds of events can be reliably detected and signaled, such as component crashes and exceptions, and arrivals and departures of components in the group. Others cannot easily be detected reliably, such as nontermination, excessive slowness, or certain kinds of deadlock and datalock. Half-measures such as use of timeouts must suffice for the latter sort. Still other kinds of unpredictability such as memory races or message races may be explicitly worked around via careful protocol design, perhaps including information tracking causality or provenance of a piece of knowledge or arranging for extra coordination to serialize certain sensitive operations.
No matter the source of the unpredictability, once detected it must be signaled to interested parties. Our epistemic, knowledge-sharing focus allows us to treat the facts of an unpredictable event as knowledge within the system. Often, such a fact will have an epistemic consequence. For example, learning that a component has crashed will allow us to discount any partial results we may have learned from it, and to discard any records we may have been keeping of the state of the failed component itself. Generally speaking, an epistemological perspective can help each component untangle intact from damaged or potentially untrustworthy pieces of knowledge. Having classified its records into “salvageable” and “unrecoverable”, it may discard items as necessary and engage with the remaining portion of the group in actions to repair the damage and continue toward the ultimate goal.
One particular strategy is to retry a failed action. Consideration of the roles involved in a shared task can help determine the scope of the action to retry. For example, the idea of supervision that features so prominently in Erlang programming (Armstrong 2003) is to restart entire failing components from a specification of their roles. Here, consideration of the epistemic intentions of components can be seen to help the programmer design a system robust to certain forms of unpredictable failure.
Programs are seldom “finished”. Change must be accommodated at every stage of a program's life cycle, from the earliest phases of development to, in many cases, long after a program is deployed. When concurrency is involved, such change often involves emendations to protocol definitions and shifts in the roles and relationships within a group of components. Just as with question K4, a full examination of question K6 must wait for chapter 3. However, approaching the question in the abstract, we may identify a few desirable characteristics of linguistic support for concurrent programming.
First, debugging of concurrent programs can be extremely difficult. A language should have tools for helping programmers gain insight into the intricacies of the interactions among each program's components. Such tools depend on information gleaned from the knowledge-sharing mechanism of the language. As such, a mechanism that generates trace information that matches the mental model of the programmer is desirable.
Second, changes to programs often introduce new interactions among existing components. A knowledge-sharing mechanism should allow for straightforward composition of pieces of program code describing (sub)conversations that a component is to engage in. It should be possible to introduce an existing component to a new conversation without heavy revision of the code implementing the conversations the component already supports.
Finally, service programs must often run for long periods of time without interruption. In cases where new features or important bug-fixes must be introduced, it is desirable to be able to replace or upgrade program components without interrupting service availability. Similar concerns arise even for user-facing graphical applications, where upgrades to program code must preserve various aspects of program state and configuration across the change.
Syndicate places knowledge front and center in its design in the form of assertions. An assertion is a representation of an item of knowledge that one component wishes to communicate to another. Assertions may represent framing knowledge, domain knowledge, and epistemic knowledge, as a component sees fit. Each component in a group exists within a dataspace which both keeps track of the group's current set of assertions and schedules execution of its constituent components. Components add and remove assertions from the dataspace freely, and the dataspace ensures that components are kept informed of relevant assertions according to their declared interests.
In order to perform this task, Syndicate dataspaces place just one constraint on the interpretation of assertions: there must exist, in a dataspace implementation, a distinct piece of syntax for constructing assertions that will mean interest in some other assertion. For example, if “the color of the boat is blue” is an assertion, then so is “there exists some interest in the color of the boat being blue”. A component that asserts interest in a set of other assertions will be kept informed as members of that set appear and disappear in the dataspace through the actions of the component or its peers.
Syndicate makes extensive use of wildcards for generating large—in fact, often infinite—sets of assertions. For example, “interest in the color of the boat being anything at all” is a valid and useful set of assertions, generated from a piece of syntax with a wildcard marker in the position where a specific color would usually reside. Concretely, we might write , which generates the set of assertions , with ranging over the entire universe of assertions.
The design of the dataspace model thus far seems similar to the tuplespace model (Gelernter 1985; Gelernter and Carriero 1992; Carriero et al. 1994). There are two vital distinctions. The first is that tuples in the tuplespace model are “generative”, taking on independent existence once placed in the shared space, whereas assertions in the dataspace model are not. Assertions in a dataspace never outlive the component that is currently asserting them; when a component terminates, all its assertions are retracted from the shared space. This occurs whether termination was normal or the result of a crash or an exception. The second key difference is that multiple copies of a particular tuple may exist in a tuplespace, while redundant assertions in a dataspace cannot be distinguished by observers. If two components separately place an assertion into their common dataspace, a peer that has previously asserted interest in is informed merely that has been asserted, not how many times it has been asserted. If one redundant assertion of is subsequently withdrawn, the observer will not be notified; only when every assertion of is retracted is the observer notified that is no longer present in the dataspace. Observers are shown only a set view on an underlying bag of assertions. In other words, producing a tuple is non-idempotent, while making an assertion is idempotent.
Even more closely related is the fact space model (Mostinckx et al. 2007; Mostinckx, Lombide Carreton and De Meuter 2008), an approach to middleware for connecting programs in mobile networks. The model is based on an underlying tuplespace, interpreting tuples as logical facts by working around the generativity and poor fault-tolerance properties of the tuplespace mechanism in two ways. First, tuples are recorded alongside the identity of the program that produced them. This provenance information allows tuples to be removed when their producer crashes or is otherwise disconnected from the network. Second, tuples can be interpreted in an idempotent way by programs. This allows programs to ignore redundant tuples, recovering a set view from the bag of tuples they observe. While the motivations and foundations of the two works differ, in many ways the dataspace and fact space models address similar concerns. Conceptually, the dataspace model can be viewed as an adaptation and integration of the fact space model into a programming language setting. The fact space model focuses on scaling up to distributed systems, while our focus is instead on a mechanism that scales down to concurrency in the small. In addition, the dataspace model separates itself from the fact space model in its explicit, central epistemic constructions and its emphasis on conversational frames.
The dataspace model maintains a strict isolation between components in a dataspace, forcing all interactions between peers through the shared dataspace. Components access and update the dataspace solely via message passing. Shared memory in the sense of multi-threaded models is ruled out. In this way, the dataspace model seems similar to the actor model (Hewitt, Bishop and Steiger 1973; Agha 1986; Agha et al. 1997; De Koster et al. 2016). The core distinction between the models is that components in the dataspace model communicate indirectly by making and retracting assertions in the shared store which are observed by other components, while actors in the actor model communicate directly by exchange of messages which are addressed to other actors. Assertions in a dataspace are routed according to the intersection between sets of assertions and sets of asserted interests in assertions, while messages in the actor model are each routed to an explicitly-named target actor.
The similarities between the dataspace model and the actor, tuplespace, and fact space models are strong enough that we borrow terminology from them to describe concepts in Syndicate. Specifically, we borrow the term “actor” to denote a Syndicate component. What the actor model calls a “configuration” we fold into our idea of a “dataspace”, a term which also denotes the shared knowledge store common to a group of actors. The term “dataspace” itself was chosen to highlight this latter denotation, making a connection to fact spaces and tuplespaces.
We will touch again on the similarities and differences among these models in chapter 3, examining details in chapter 11. In the remainder of this subsection, let us consider Syndicate's relationship to questions K1–K6.
The Syndicate design takes questions K1–K3 to heart, placing them at the core of its choice of sharing mechanism and the concomitant approach to protocol design. Actors exchange knowledge encoded as assertions via a shared dataspace. All shared state in a Syndicate program is represented as assertions: this includes domain knowledge, epistemic knowledge, and frame knowledge. Key to Syndicate's functioning is the use of a special form of epistemic knowledge, namely assertions of interest. It is these assertions that drive knowledge flow in a program from parties asserting some fact to parties asserting interest in that fact.
Mey (2001) defines pragmatics as the subfield of linguistics which “studies the use of language in human communication as determined by the conditions of society”. Broadening its scope to include computer languages in software communication as determined by the conditions of the system as a whole takes us into a somewhat speculative area.
Pragmatics is sometimes characterized as dealing with the effects of context [...] if one collectively refers to all the facts that can vary from utterance to utterance as ‘context.’ (Korta and Perry 2015)
Viewing an interaction among actors as a conversation and shared assertions as conversational state allows programmers to employ the linguistic tools discussed in section 2.1, taking steps toward a pragmatics of computer protocols. Syndicate encourages programmers to design conversational protocols directly in terms of roles and to map conversational contributions onto the assertion and retraction of assertions in the shared space. Grice's maxims offer high-level guidance for defining the meaning of each assertion: the maxims of quantity guide the design of the individual records included in each assertion; those of quality and relevance help determine the criteria for when an assertion should be made and when it should be retracted; and those of manner shape a vocabulary of primitive assertions with precisely-defined meanings that compose when simultaneously expressed to yield complex derived meanings.
Syndicate's assertions of interest determine the movement of knowledge in a system. They define, in effect, the set of facts an actor is “listening” for. All communication mechanisms must have some equivalent feature, used to route information from place to place. Unusually, however, Syndicate allows actors to react to these assertions of interest, in that assertions of interest are ordinary assertions like any other. Actors may act based on their knowledge of the way knowledge moves in a system by expressing interest in interest and deducing implicatures from the discovered facts. Mey (2001) defines a conversational implicature as “something which is implied in conversation, that is, something which is left implicit in actual language use.” Grice (1975) makes three statements helpful in pinning down the idea of conversational implicature: 1. “To assume the presence of a conversational implicature, we have to assume that at least the Cooperative Principle is being observed.” 2. “Conversational implicata are not part of the meaning of the expressions to the employment of which they attach.” This is what distinguishes implicature from implication. 3. “To calculate a conversational implicature is to calculate what has to be supposed in order to preserve the supposition that the Cooperative Principle is being observed.”
For example, imagine an actor responsible for answering questions about factorials. The assertion means that the factorial of is . If learns that some peer has asserted , which is to be interpreted as interest in the set of facts describing all potential answers to the question “what is the factorial of ?,” it can act on this knowledge to compute a suitable answer and can then assert in response. Once it learns that interest in the factorial of is no longer present in the group, it can retract its own assertion and release the corresponding storage resources. Knowledge of interest in a topic acts as a signal of demand for some resource: here, computation (directly) and storage (indirectly). The raw fact of the interest itself has the direct semantic meaning “please convey to me any assertions matching this pattern”, but has an indirect, unspoken, pragmatic meaning—an implicature—in our imagined protocol of “please compute the answer to this question.”
The idea of implicature finds use beyond assertions of interest. For example, the process of deducing an implicature may be used to reconstruct temporarily- or permanently-unavailable information “from context,” based on the underlying assumption that the parties involved are following the Cooperative Principle. For example, a message describing successful fulfillment of an order carries an implicature of the existence of the order. A hearer of the message may infer the order's existence on this basis. Similarly, a reply implicates the existence of a request.
Finally, the mechanism that Syndicate provides for conveying assertions from actor to actor via the dataspace allows reasoning about common knowledge (Fagin et al. 2004). An actor placing some assertion into the dataspace knows both that all interested peers will automatically learn of the assertion and that each such peer knows that all others will learn of the assertion. Providing this guarantee at the language level encourages the use of epistemic reasoning in protocol design while avoiding the risks of implementing the necessary state-management substrate by hand.
Recall from section 2.3 that robust treatment of unpredictability requires that we must be able to either detect and respond to or forestall the occurrence of the various unpredictable situations inherent to concurrent programming. The dataspace model is the foundation of Syndicate's approach to questions K4 and K5, offering a means for signaling and detection of such events. However, by itself the dataspace model is not enough. The picture is completed with linguistic features for structuring state and control flow within each individual actor. These features allow programmers to concisely express appropriate responses to unexpected events. Finally, Syndicate's knowledge-based approach suggests techniques for protocol design which can help avoid certain forms of unpredictability by construction.
The dataspace model constrains the means by which Syndicate programs may communicate events within a group, including communication of unpredictable events. All communication must be expressed as changes in the set of assertions in the dataspace. Therefore, an obvious approach is to use assertions to express such ideas as demand for some service, membership of some group, presence in some context, availability of some resource, and so on. Actors expressing interest in such assertions will receive notifications as matching assertions come and go, including when they vanish unexpectedly. Combining this approach with the guarantee that the dataspace removes all assertions of a failing actor from the dataspace yields a form of exception propagation.
For example, consider a protocol where actors assert , where is a message for the user, in order to cause a user interface element to appear on the user's display. The actor responsible for reacting to such assertions, creating and destroying graphical user interface elements, will react to retraction of a assertion by removing the associated graphical element. The actor that asserts some may deliberately retract it when it is no longer relevant for the user. However, it may also crash. If it does, the dataspace model ensures that its assertions are all retracted. Since this includes the assertion, the actor managing the display learns automatically that its services are no longer required.
Another example may be seen in the example discussed above. The client asserting may “lose interest” before it receives an answer, or of course may crash unexpectedly. From the perspective of actor , the two situations are identical: is informed of the retraction, concludes that no interest in the factorial of remains, and may then choose to abandon the computation. The request implicated by assertion of is effectively canceled by retraction, whether this is caused by some active decision on the part of the requestor or is an automatic consequence of its unexpected failure.
The dataspace model thus offers a mechanism for using changes in assertions to express changes in demand for some resource, including both expected and unpredictable changes. Building on this mechanism, Syndicate offers linguistic tools for responding appropriately to such changes. Assertions describing a demand or a request act as framing knowledge and thus delimit a conversation about the specific demand or request concerned. For example, the presence of for each particular corresponds to one particular “topic of conversation”. Likewise, the assertion corresponds to a particular “call frame” invoking the services of actor . Actors need tools for describing such conversational frames, associating local conversational state, relevant event handlers, and any conversation-specific assertions that need to be made with each conversational frame created.
Syndicate introduces a language construct called a facet for this purpose. Each actor is composed of multiple facets; each facet represents a particular conversation that the actor is engaged in. A facet both scopes and specifies conversational responses to incoming events. Each facet includes private state variables related to the conversation concerned, as well as a bundle of assertions and event handlers. Each event handler has a pattern over assertions associated with it. Each of these patterns is translated into an assertion of interest and combined with the other assertions of the facet to form the overall contribution that the facet makes to the shared dataspace. An analogy to objects in object-oriented languages can be drawn. Like an object, a facet has private state. Its event handlers are akin to an object's methods. Unique to facets, though, is their contribution to the shared state in the dataspace: objects lack a means to automatically convey changes in their local state to interested peers.
Facets may be nested. This can be used to reflect nested sub-conversations via nested facets. When a containing facet is terminated, its contained facets are also terminated, and when an actor has no facets left, the actor itself terminates. Of course, if the actor crashes or is explicitly shut down, all its facets are removed along with it. These termination-related aspects correspond to the idea that a thread of conversation that logically depends on some overarching discussion context clearly becomes irrelevant when the broader discussion is abandoned.
The combination of Syndicate's facets and its assertion-centric approach to state replication yields a mechanism for robustly detecting and responding to certain kinds of unpredictable event. However, not all forms of unpredictability lend themselves to explicit modeling as shared assertions. For these, we require an alternative approach.
Consider unpredictable interleavings of events: for example, UDP datagrams may be reordered arbitrarily by the network. If some datagram can only be interpreted after datagram has been interpreted, a datagram receiver must arrange to buffer packets when they are received out of order, reconstructing an appropriate order to perform its task. The same applies to messages passed between actors in the actor model. The observation that datagram establishes necessary context for the subsequent message suggests an approach we may take in Syndicate. If instead of messages we model and as assertions, then we may write our program as follows:
- Express interest in . Wait until notified that has been asserted.
- Express interest in . Wait until notified that has been asserted.
- Process and as usual.
- Withdraw the previously-asserted interests in and .
This program will function correctly no matter whether is asserted before or vice versa. The structure of program reflects the observation that supplies a frame within which is to be understood by paying attention to only after having learned . Use of assertions instead of messages allows an interpreter of knowledge to decouple itself from the precise order of events in which knowledge is acquired and shared, concentrating instead on the logical dependency ordering among items of knowledge.
Finally, certain forms of unpredictability cannot be effectively detected or forestalled. For example, no system can distinguish nontermination from mere slowness in practice. In cases such as these, timeouts can be used in Syndicate just as in other languages. Modeling time as a protocol involving assertions in the dataspace allows us to smoothly incorporate time with other protocols, treating it as just like any other kind of knowledge about the world.
Section 2.4, expanding on question K6, introduced the challenges of debuggability, flexibility, and upgradeability. The dataspace model contributes to debuggability, while facets and hierarchical layering of dataspaces contribute to flexibility. While this dissertation does not offer more than a cursory investigation of upgradeability, the limited exploration of the topic so far completed does suggest that it could be smoothly integrated with the Syndicate design.
The dataspace model leads the programmer to reason about the group of collaborating actors as a whole in terms of two kinds of change: actions that alter the set of assertions in the dataspace, and events delivered to individual actors as a consequence of such actions. This suggests a natural tracing mechanism. There is nothing to the model other than events and actions, so capturing and displaying the sequence of actions and events not only accurately reflects the operation of a dataspace program, but directly connects to the programmer's mental model as well.
Facets can be seen as atomic units of interaction. They allow decomposition of an actor's relationships and conversations into small, self-contained pieces with well-defined boundaries. As the overall goals of the system change, its actors can be evolved to match by making alterations to groups of related facets in related actors. Altering, adding, or removing one facet while leaving others in an actor alone makes perfect sense.
The dataspace model is hierarchical. Each dataspace is modeled as a component in some wider context: as an actor in another, outer dataspace. This applies recursively. Certain assertions in the dataspace may be marked with a special constructor that causes them to be relayed to the next containing dataspace in the hierarchy, yielding cross-dataspace interaction. Peers in a particular dataspace are given no means of detecting whether their collaborators are simple actors or entire nested dataspaces with rich internal structure. This frees the program designer to decompose an actor into a nested dataspace with multiple contained actors, without affecting other actors in the system at large. This recursive, hierarchical (dis)aggregation of actors also contributes to the flexibility of a Syndicate program as time goes by and requirements change.
Code upgrade is a challenging problem for any system. Replacing a unit of code involves the old code marshaling its state into a bundle of information to be delivered to the new code. In other words, the actor involved sends a message to its “future self”. Systems like Erlang (Armstrong 2003) incorporate sophisticated language- and library-level mechanisms for supporting such code replacement. Syndicate shares with Erlang some common ideas from the actor model. The strong isolation between actors allows each to be treated separately when it comes to code replacement. Logically, each is running an independent codebase. By casting all interactions among actors in terms of a protocol, both Erlang and Syndicate offer the possibility of protocol-mediated upgrades and reboots affecting anything from a small part to the entirety of a running system.
In upcoming chapters, we will see concrete details of the Syndicate design and its implementation and use. Before we leave the high-level perspective on concurrency, however, a few words on general principles of the design of concurrent and distributed systems are in order. I have taken these guidelines as principles to be encouraged in Syndicate and in Syndicate programs. To be clear, they are my own conjectures about what makes good software. I developed them both through my experiences with early Syndicate prototypes and my experiences of development of large-scale commercial software in my career before beginning this project. In some cases, the guidelines influenced the Syndicate design, having an indirect but universal effect on Syndicate programs. In others, they form a set of background assumptions intended to directly shape the protocols designed by Syndicate programmers.
When working with a Syndicate implementation, programmers must design conversational protocols that capture relevant aspects of the domain each program is intended to address. The most important overarching principle is that Syndicate programs and protocols should make their domain manifest, and hide implementation constructs. Generally, each domain will include an ontology of its own, relating to concepts largely internal to the domain. Such an ontology will seldom or never include concepts from the host language or even Syndicate-specific ideas.
Following this principle, Syndicate takes care to avoid polluting a programmer's domain models with implementation- and programming-language-level concepts. As far as possible, the structure and meaning of each assertion is left to the programmer. Syndicate implementations reserve the contents of a dataspace for domain-level concepts. Access to information in the domain of programs, relevant to debugging, tracing and otherwise reflecting on the operation of a running program, is offered by other (non-dataspace, non-assertion) means. This separation of domain from implementation mechanism manifests in several specific corollaries:
- Do not propagate host-language exception values across a dataspace.
An actor that raises an uncaught exception is terminated and removed from the dataspace, but the details of the exception (stack traces, error messages, error codes etc.) are not made available to peers via the dataspace. After all, exceptions describe some aspect of a running computer program, and do not in general relate to the program's domain.17Syndicate distinguishes itself from Erlang here. Erlang's failure-signaling primitives, links and monitors, necessarily operate in terms of actor IDs, so it is no great step to include stack traces and error messages alongside an actor ID in a failure description record.
Instead, a special reflective mechanism is made available for host-language programs to access such information for debugging and other similar purposes. Actors in a dataspace do not use this mechanism when operating normally. As a rule, they instead depend on domain-level signaling of failures in terms of the (automatic) removal of domain-level assertions on failure, and do not depend on host-language exceptions to signal domain-level exceptional situations.
- Make internal actor identifiers completely invisible.
The notion of a (programming-language) actor is almost never part of the application domain; this goes double for the notion of an actor's internal identifier (a.k.a. pointer, “pid”, or similar). Where identity of specific parties is relevant to a domain, Syndicate requires the protocol to explicitly specify and manage such identities, and they remain distinct from the internal identities of actors in a running Syndicate program. Again, during debugging, the identities of specific actors are relevant to the programmer, but this is because the programmer is operating in a different domain from that of the program under study.
Explicit treatment of identity unlocks two desirable abilities:
- One (implementation-level) actor can transparently perform multiple (domain-level) roles. Having decoupled implementation-level identity from domain-level information, we are free to choose arbitrary relations connecting them.
- One actor can transparently delegate portions of its responsibilities to others. Explicit management of identity allows actors to share a domain-level identity without needing to share an implementation-level identity. Peers interacting with such actors remain unaware of the particulars of any delegation being employed.
- Multicast communication should be the norm; point-to-point, a special case.
Conversational interactions can involve any number of participants. In languages where the implementation-provided medium of conversation always involves exactly two participants, programmers have to encode -party domain-level conversations using the two-party mechanism. Because of this, messages between components have to mention implementation-level conversation endpoints such as channel or actor IDs, polluting otherwise domain-specific ontologies with implementation-level constructs. In order to keep implementation ideas out of domain ontologies, Syndicate does not define any kind of value-level representation of a conversation. Instead, it leaves the choice of scheme for naming conversations up to the programmer.
- Equivalences on messages, assertions and other forms of shared state should be in terms of the domain, not in terms of implementation constructs.
For example, consider deduplication of received messages. In some protocols, in order to make message receipt idempotent, a table of previously-seen messages must be maintained. To decide membership of this table, a particular equivalence must be chosen. Forcing this equivalence to involve implementation-level constructs entails a need for the programmer to explicitly normalize messages to ensure that the implementation-level equivalence reflects the desired domain-level equivalence. To be even more specific:
- If a transport includes message sequence numbers, message identifiers, timestamps etc., then these items of information from the transport should not form part of the equivalence used.
- Sender identity should not form part of the equivalence used. If a particular protocol needs to know the identity of the sender of a message, it should explicitly include a definition of the relevant notion of identity (not necessarily the implementation-level identity of the sender) and explicitly include it in message type definitions.
Concurrent programs in all their forms rely on being able to scope the size and lifetime of allocations of internal resources made in response to external demand. “Demand” and “resource” are extremely general ideas. As a result, resource management decisions appear in many different guises, and give rise to a number of related principles:
- Demand-matching should be well-supported.
Demand-matching is the process of automatic allocation and release of some resource in response to detected need elsewhere in a program. The concept applies in many different places.
For example, in response to the demand of an incoming TCP connection, a server may allocate resources including a pair of memory buffers and a new thread. The buffers, combined with TCP back-pressure, give control over memory usage, and the thread gives control over compute resources as well as offering a convenient language construct to attach other kinds of resource-allocation and -release decisions to. When the connection closes, the server may terminate the thread, release other associated resources, and finalize its state.
Another example can be found in graphical user interfaces, where various widgets manifest in response to the needs of the program. An entry in a “buddy list” in a chat program may be added in response to presence of a contact, making the “demand” the presence of the contact and the “resource” the resulting list entry widget. When the contact disconnects, the “demand” for the “resource” vanishes, and the list entry widget should be removed.
- Service presence (Konieczny et al. 2009) and presence information generally should be well-supported.
Consider linking multiple independent services together to form a concurrent application. A web-server may depend on a database: it “demands” the services of the database, which acts as a “resource”. The web-server and database may in turn depend upon a logging service. Each service cannot start its work before its dependencies are ready: it observes the presence of its dependencies as part of its initialization.
Similarly, in a publish-subscribe system, it may be expensive to collect and broadcast a certain statistic. A publisher may use the availability of subscriber information to decide whether or not the statistic needs to be maintained. Consumers of the statistic act as “demand”, and the resource is the entirety of the activity of producing the statistic, along with the statistic itself. Presence of consumers is used to manage resource commitment.
Finally, the AMQP messaging middleware protocol (The AMQP Working Group 2008) includes special flags named “immediate” and “mandatory” on each published message. They cause a special “return to sender” feature to be activated, triggering a notification to the sender only when no receiver is present for the message at the time of its publication. This form of presence allows a sender to take alternative action in case no peer is available to attend to its urgent message.
This is a generalization of the notion of presence, which is just one portion of overall state.
In a distributed system, a failed component is indistinguishable from a slow one and from a network failure. Timeouts are a pragmatic solution to the problem in a distributed setting. Here, however, we have the luxury of a non-distributed design, and we may make use of specific forms of “demand” information or presence in order to communicate failure. Timeouts are still required for inter-operation with external systems, but are seldom needed as a normal part of greenfield Syndicate protocol design.
The language should be designed to make programs robust by default to reordering of signals. As part of this, idempotent signals should be the default where possible.
- Event-handlers should be written as if they were to be run in a (pseudo-) random order, even if a particular implementation does not rearrange them randomly. This is similar to the thinking behind the random event selection in CML's choice mechanism (Reppy 1992 page 131).
- Questions of deduplication, equivalence, and identity must be placed at the heart of each Syndicate protocol design, even if only at an abstract level.
Mathematical and computational structures enjoy an enormous amount of freedom not available to structures that must be realized in the physical world. Similarly, patterns of interaction that can be realized in a non-distributed setting are often inappropriate, unworkable, or impossible to translate to a distributed setting. One example of this concerns higher-order data, by which I mean certain kinds of closure, mutable data structures, and any other stateful kind of entity.
Syndicate is not a distributed programming language, but was heavily inspired by my experience of distributed programming and by limitations of existing programming languages employed in a distributed setting. Furthermore, certain features of the design suggest that it may lead to a useful distributed programming model in future. With this in mind, certain principles relate to a form of physical realizability; chief among them, the idea of limiting information exchange to first-order data wherever possible. The language should encourage programmers to act as if transfer of higher-order data between peers in a dataspace were impossible. While non-distributed implementations of Syndicate can offer support for transfer of functions, objects containing mutable references, and so on, stepping to a distributed setting limits programs to exchange of first-order data only, since real physical communication networks are necessarily first-order. Transfer of higher-order data involves a hidden use/mention distinction. Higher-order data may be encoded, but cannot directly be transmitted.
With that said, however, notions of stateful location or place are important to certain domains, and the ontologies of such domains may well naturally include references to such domain-relevant location information. It is host-language higher-order data that Syndicate discourages, not domain-level references to location and located state.
Many experiments in structuring groups of (actor model) actors have been performed over the past few decades. Some employ hierarchies of actors, that is, the overall system is structured as a tree, with each actor or group existing in exactly one group (e.g. Varela and Agha 1999). Others allow actors to be placed in more than one group at once, yielding a graph of actors (e.g. Callsen and Agha 1994).
Syndicate limits actor composition to tree-shaped hierarchies of actors, again inspired by physical realizability. Graph-like connectivity is encoded in terms of protocols layered atop the hierarchical medium provided. Recursive groupings of computational entities in real systems tend to be hierarchical: threads within processes within containers managed by a kernel running under a hypervisor on a core within a CPU within a machine in a datacenter.
Now that we have seen an outline of the Syndicate design, the following definitions may shed light on the choice of the name “Syndicate”:
A syndicate is a self-organizing group of individuals, companies, corporations or entities formed to transact some specific business, to pursue or promote a shared interest.
1. A group of individuals or organizations combined to promote a common interest.
1.1 An association or agency supplying material simultaneously to a number of newspapers or periodicals.
1.1 Publish or broadcast (material) simultaneously in a number of newspapers, television stations, etc.
— Oxford Dictionary
An additional relevant observation is that a syndicate can be a group of companies, and a company can be a group of actors.
Our analysis of communication and coordination so far has yielded a high-level, abstract view on concurrency, taking knowledge-sharing as the linchpin of cooperation among components. The previous chapter raised several questions, answering some in general terms, and leaving others for investigation in the context of specific mechanisms for sharing knowledge. In this chapter, we explore these remaining questions. To do so, we survey the paradigmatic approaches to communication and coordination. Our focus is on the needs of programmers and the operational issues that arise in concurrent programming. That is, we look at ways in which an approach helps or hinders achievement of a program's goals in a way that is robust to unpredictability and change.
The outstanding questions from chapter 2 define a multi-dimensional landscape within which we place different approaches to concurrency. A given concurrency model can be assigned to a point in this landscape based on its properties as seen through the lens of these questions. Each point represents a particular set of trade-offs with respect to the needs of programmers.
To recap, the questions left for later discussion were:
- K4Which forms of knowledge-sharing are robust in the face of the unpredictability intrinsic to concurrency?
- K6Which forms of knowledge-sharing are robust to and help mitigate the impact of changes in the goals of a program?
In addition, the investigation of question K3 (“what do concurrent components need to know to do their jobs?”) concluded with a picture of domain knowledge, epistemic knowledge, framing knowledge, and knowledge flow within a group of components. However, it left unaddressed the question of mechanism, giving rise to a follow-up question:
In short, the three questions relate to robustness, operability and mechanism, respectively. The rest of the chapter is structured around an informal investigation of characteristics refining these categories.
Characteristics C1–C12 in figure 3 will act as a lens through which we will examine three broad families of concurrency: shared memory models, message-passing models, and tuplespaces and external databases. In addition, we will analyze the fact space model briefly mentioned in the previous chapter.
We illustrate our points throughout with a chat server that connects an arbitrary number of participants. It relays text typed by a user to all others and generates announcements about the arrival and departure of peers. A client may thus display a list of active users. The chat server involves chat-room state—the membership of the room—and demands many-to-many communication among the concurrent agents representing connected users. Each such agent receives events from two sources: its peers in the chat-room and the TCP connection to its user. If a user disconnects or a programming error causes a failure in the agent code, resources such as TCP sockets must be cleaned up correctly, and appropriate notifications must be sent to the remaining agents and users.
Shared memory languages are those where threads communicate via modifications to shared memory, usually synchronized via constructs such as monitors (Gosling et al. 2014; IEEE 2009; ISO 2014). Figure 4 sketches the heart of a chat room implementation using a monitor (Brinch Hansen 1993) to protect the shared members variable.
(C1; C3; C4) Mutable memory tracks shared state and also acts as a communications mechanism. Buffers and routing information for messages between threads are explicitly encoded as part of the conversational state, which naturally accommodates the multi-party conversations of our chat server. However, announcing changes in conversational state to peers—a connection or disconnection, for example—requires construction of a broadcast mechanism out of low-level primitives.
(C2) To engage in multiple conversations at once, a thread must monitor multiple regions of memory for changes. Languages with powerful memory transactions make this easy; the combination of “retry” and “orelse” gives the requisite power (Harris et al. 2005). Absent such transactions, and ruling out polling, threads must explicitly signal each other when making changes. If a thread must wait for any one of several possible events, it is necessary to reinvent multiplexing based on condition variables and write code to perform associated book-keeping.
(C5) Maintaining the integrity of shared state is famously difficult. The burden of correctly placing transaction boundaries or locks and correctly ordering updates falls squarely on the programmer. It is reflected in figure 4 not only in the use of the monitor concept itself, but also in the careful ordering of events in the connect and disconnect methods. In particular, the call to announce (line 13) must follow the removal of user (line 12), because otherwise, the system may invoke callback for the disconnected user. Similarly, cloning the members map (line 15) is necessary so that a disconnecting user (line 17) does not change the collection mid-iteration. Moreover, even with transactions and correct locking discipline, care must be taken to maintain logical invariants of an application. For example, if a chat user's thread terminates unexpectedly without calling disconnect, the system continues to send output to the associated TCP socket indefinitely, even though input from the socket is no longer being handled, meaning members has become logically corrupted. Conversely, a seemingly-correct program may call disconnect twice in corner cases, which explains the check (line 11) for preventing double departure announcements.
(C7; C8) Memory transactions with “retry” allow control flow to follow directly from changes to shared data; otherwise, however, data flow is completely decoupled from inter-thread control flow. The latter is provided via synchronization primitives, which are only coincidentally associated with changes to the shared store. Coming from the opposite direction, control flow is also decoupled from data flow. For example, exceptions do not automatically trigger a clean-up of shared state or signal the termination of the thread to the relevant group of peers. Determining responsibility for a failure and deciding on appropriate recovery actions is challenging. Consider an action by user A that leads to a call to announce. If the callback associated with user B (line 16) throws an exception, the handler on line 17 catches it. To deal with this situation, the developer must reason in terms of three separate, stateful entities with non-trivial responsibilities: the agents for A and B plus the chat room itself. If the exception propagates, it may not only damage the monitor’s state but terminate the thread representing A, even though it is the fault of B’s callback. Contrast the problems seen in this situation with the call to the callback in connect (line 5); it does not need an exception handler, because the data flow resulting from the natural control flow of exception propagation is appropriate.
(C9) The thread model also demands the manual management of resources for a given conversation. For example, disposal of unwanted or broken TCP sockets must be coded explicitly in every program.
(C6) On the bright side, because it is common to have a single copy of any given piece of information, with all threads sharing access to that copy, explicit consideration of consistency among replicas is seldom necessary.
The many interlocking problems described above are difficult to discover in realistic programs, either through testing or formal verification. To reach line 17, a callback must fail mid-way through an announcement caused by a different user. The need for the .clone() on line 15 is not directly obvious. To truly gain confidence in the implementation, one must consider cases where multiple failures occur during one announcement, including the scenario where a failure during speak causes disconnect and another failure occurs during the resulting announcement. The interactions between the various locks, loops, callbacks, exception handlers, and pieces of mutable state are manifold and non-obvious.
(C10; C11; C12) Because shared memory languages allow unconstrained access to shared memory, not connected to any kind of scoping construct or protocol description, recovering a clear picture of the relationships and interactions among threads is extremely challenging. Similarly, as discussed for character C2, modifying a component to engage in multiple conversations at once or expanding the scope of a conversation to include multiple components is in general invasive. Finally, the lack of a clear linguistic specification of the structure of the shared memory and its relationship to a program's threads largely precludes automated support for orthogonal persistence and code upgrade.
Message-passing models of concurrency include languages using Hoare’s CSP channels (Hoare 1985) or channels from the -calculus (Milner 1999), and those based on the actor model (Hewitt, Bishop and Steiger 1973; Agha 1986; Agha et al. 1997; De Koster et al. 2016). Channel languages include CML (Donnelly and Fluet 2008; Reppy 1991), Go, and Rust, which all use channels in a shared-memory setting, and the Join Calculus (Fournet and Gonthier 2000), which assumes an isolated-process setting. This section concentrates on isolated processes because channel-based systems using shared memory are like those discussed in section 3.2. Actor languages include Erlang (Armstrong 2003), Scala (Haller and Odersky 2009), AmbientTalk (Van Cutsem et al. 2014), and E (Miller, Tribble and Shapiro 2005).
Channel- and actor-based models are closely related (Fowler, Lindley and Wadler 2016). An actor receives input exclusively via a mailbox (Agha 1986), and messages are explicitly addressed by the sending actor to a specific recipient. In channel-based languages, messages are explicitly addressed to particular channels; each message goes to a single recipient, even when a channel’s receive capability is shared among a group of threads.
(C1) Both actor- and channel-based languages force an encoding of the chat room’s one-to-many medium in terms of built-in point-to-point communication constructs. Compare figure 5, which expresses the chat room as a process-style actor, with figure 6, which presents pseudo-code for a channel-based implementation. In figure 5, the actor embodying the chat room’s broadcast medium responds to Speak messages (line 15) by sending ChatOutput messages to actors representing users in the room. In figure 6, the thread running the chatroom() procedure responds similarly to Speak instructions received on its control channel (line 13).
(C2) Languages with channels often provide a “select” construct, so that programs can wait for events on any of a group of channels. Such constructs implement automatic demultiplexing by channel identity. For example, a thread acting as a user agent might await input from the chat room or the thread’s TCP connection (figure 7a). The language runtime takes care to atomically resolve the transaction. In these languages, a channel reference can stand directly for a specific conversational context. By contrast, actor languages lack such a direct representation of a conversation. Actors retrieve messages from their own private mailbox and then demultiplex manually by inspecting received messages for correlation identifiers (figure 7b). While the channel-based approach forces use of an implementation-level correlator—the channel reference—explicit pattern-based demultiplexing allows domain-level information in each received message to determine the relevant conversational context. The E language (Miller 2006; De Koster, Van Cutsem and De Meuter 2016) is a hybrid of the two approaches, offering object references to denote specific conversations within the heap of a given actor, and employs method dispatch as a limited pattern matcher over received messages.
(C3; C4; C5) With either actors or channels, only a small amount of conversational state is managed by the language runtime. In actor systems, it is the routing table mapping actor IDs to mailbox addresses; in channel-based systems, the implementation of channel references and buffers performs the analogous role. Developers implement other kinds of shared state using message passing. This approach to conversational state demands explicit programming of updates to a local replica of the state based on received messages. Conversely, when an agent decides that a change to conversational state is needed, it must broadcast the change to the relevant parties. Correct notification of changes is crucial to maintaining integrity of conversational state. Most other aspects of integrity maintenance become local problems due to the isolation of individual replicas. In particular, a crashing agent cannot corrupt peers.
(C5) Still, the programmer is not freed from having to consider execution order when it comes to maintaining local state. Consider the initial announcement of already-present peers to an arriving user in figure 5 (lines 7–8). Many subtle variations on this code arise from moving the addition of the new user (line 9) elsewhere in the Connect handler clause; some omit self-announcement or announce the user’s appearance twice.
(C7; C8) Both models make it impossible to have data flow between agents without associated control flow. As Hewitt, Bishop and Steiger (1973) write, “control flow and data flow are inseparable” in the actor model. However, control flow within an agent may not coincide with an appropriate flow of data to peers, especially when an exception is raised and crashes an agent. Channel references are not exclusively owned by threads, meaning we cannot generally close channels in case of a crashing thread. Furthermore, most channel-based languages are synchronous, meaning a send blocks if no recipient is ready to receive. If a thread servicing a channel crashes, then the next send to that channel may never complete. In our chat server, a crashed user agent thread can deadlock the whole system: the chatroom thread may get stuck during callbacks (lines 7 and 17 in figure 6). In general, synchronous channel languages preclude local reasoning about potential deadlocks; interaction with some party can lead to deadlock via a long chain of dependencies. Global, synchronous thinking has to be brought to bear in protocol design for such languages: the programmer must consider scheduling in addition to data flow. Actors can do better. Sends are asynchronous, introducing latency and buffering but avoiding deadlock, and mailboxes are owned by exactly one actor. If that actor crashes, further communication to or from that actor is hopeless. Indeed, Erlang offers monitors and exit signals, i.e., an actor may subscribe to a peer’s lifecycle events (line 6 in figure 5). Such subscriptions allow the chat room to combine error handling with normal disconnection. No matter whether a user agent actor terminates normally or abnormally, the EXIT_SIGNAL handler (lines 12–14) runs, announcing the departure to the remaining peers. The E language allows references to remote objects to break when the associated remote vat exits, crashes, or disconnects, providing a hybrid of channel-style demultiplexing with Erlang-style exit signaling.
(C6) Where many replicas of a piece of state exist alongside communications delays, the problem of maintaining consistency among replicas arises. Neither channels nor actors have any support to offer here. Channels, and synchronous communication in general, seem to prioritize (without guaranteeing) consistency at the expense of deadlock-proneness; asynchronous communication avoids deadlock, but risks inconsistency through the introduction of latency.
(C9) Exit signals are a step toward automatically managing resource deallocation. While actors must manually allocate resources, the exit signal mechanism may be used to tie the lifetime of a resource, such as a TCP socket, to the lifetime of an actor. If fine-grained control is needed, it must be programmed manually. Additionally, in asynchronous (buffered) communication, problems with resource control arise in a different way: it is easy to overload a component, causing its input buffer or mailbox to grow potentially without bound.
(C10) Enforced isolation between components, and forcing all communication to occur via message-passing, makes the provision of tooling for visualizing execution traces possible. Languages such as Erlang include debug trace facilities in the core runtime, and make good use of them for lightweight capturing of traces even in production. However, the possibility of message races complicates reasoning and debugging; programmers are often left to analyze the live behavior of their programs, if tooling is unavailable or inadequate. Modification of programs to capture ad-hoc trace information frequently causes problematic races to disappear, further complicating such analysis.
(C11) As figure 7 makes clear, modifying a component to engage in multiple simultaneous conversations can be straightforward, if all I/O goes through a single syntactic location. However, if communication is hidden away in calls to library routines, such modifications demand non-local program transformations. Similarly, adding a new participant to an existing conversation can require non-local changes. In instances where a two-party conversation must now include three or more participants, this often results in reification of the communications medium into a program component in its own right.
(C12) Erlang encourages adherence to a “tail-call to next I/O action” convention allowing easy upgrade of running code. Strictly-immutable local data and functional programming combine with this convention to allow a module backing a process to be upgraded across such tail-calls, seamlessly transitioning to a new version of the code. In effect, all actor state is held in accumulator data structures explicitly threaded through actor implementations. Other actor languages without such strong conventions cannot offer such a smooth path to live code upgrade. Channel-based languages could include similar conventions; in practice, I am not aware of any that do so.
Finally, hybrid models exist, where a shared, mutable store is the medium of communication, but the store itself is accessed and components are synchronized via message passing. These models are database-like in nature. Languages employing such models include tuplespace-based languages such as Linda (Gelernter 1985; Carriero et al. 1994), Lime (Murphy, Picco and Roman 2006), and TOTAM (Scholliers, González Boix and De Meuter 2009; Scholliers et al. 2010; González Boix 2012; González Boix et al. 2014), as well as languages that depend solely on an external DBMS for inter-agent communication, such as PHP (Tatroe, MacIntyre and Lerdorf 2013).
Tuplespace languages have in common the notion of a “blackboard” data structure, a tuplespace, shared among a group of agents. Data items, called tuples, are written to the shared area and retrieved by pattern matching. Once published to the space, tuples take on independent existence. Similarly, reading a tuple from the space may move it from the shared area to an agent’s private store.
The original tuplespace model provided three essential primitives: out, in, and rd. The first writes tuples to the store; the other two move and copy tuples from the store to an agent, respectively. Both in and rd are blocking operations; if multiple tuples match an operation’s pattern, an arbitrary single matching tuple is moved or copied. Later work extended this austere model with, for example, copy-collect (Rowstron and Wood 1996), which allows copying of all matching tuples rather than the arbitrary single match yielded by rd. Such extensions add essential expressiveness to the system (Busi and Zavattaro 2001; Felleisen 1991). Lime goes further yet, offering not only non-blocking operations inp and rdp, but also reactions, which are effectively callbacks, executed once per matching tuple. Upon creation of a reaction, existing tuples trigger execution of the callback. When subsequent tuples are inserted, any matches to the reaction’s pattern cause additional callback invocations. This moves tuplespace programming toward programming with publish/subscribe middleware (Eugster et al. 2003). TOTAM takes Lime's reactions even further, allowing reaction to removal of a previously-seen tuple.
External DBMS systems share many characteristics with tuplespaces: they allow storage of relations; stored items are persistent; retrieval by pattern-matching is common; and many modern systems can be extended with triggers, code to be executed upon insertion, update, or removal of matching data. One difference is the notion of transactionality, standard in DBMS settings but far from settled in tuplespaces (Bakken and Schlichting 1995; Papadopoulos and Arbab 1998). Another is the decoupling of notions of process from the DBMS itself, where tuplespace systems integrate process control with other aspects of the coordination mechanism.
Figure 8 presents a pseudo-code tuplespace implementation of a user agent, combining Java-like constructs with Lime-like reactions. Previous sketches have concentrated on appropriate implementation of the shared medium connecting user agents; here, we concentrate on the agents themselves, because tuplespaces are already sufficiently expressive to support broadcasting.
(C1; C2; C3) Tuplespaces naturally yield multi-party communication. All communication happens indirectly through manipulation of shared state. Inserted tuples are visible to all participants. With reactions, programmers may directly express the relationship between appearance of tuples matching a pattern and execution of a code fragment, allowing a richer kind of demultiplexing of conversations than channel-based models. For example, the reactions in figure 8 (lines 3–5) manifestly associate conversations about presence, absence and utterances with specific responses, respectively; the tuplespace automatically selects the correct code to execute as events are received. By contrast, in tuplespace languages without reactions, the blocking natures of in and rd lead to multiplexing problems similar to those seen with shared memory and monitors.
(C1) Tuples are persistent, hence the need to retract each message before inserting the next (line 11). An unfortunate side effect is that if a new participant joins mid-conversation, it receives the most recent utterance from each existing peer, even though that utterance may have been made a long time ago.
(C7; C8; C4; C5) Data flow usually occurs concomitantly with control flow in a tuplespace; in and rd are blocking operations, and reactions trigger code execution in response to a received event. Control flow, however, does not always trigger associated data flow. Because manipulation of the tuplespace is imperative, no mechanism exists within the core tuplespace model to connect the lifetime of tuples in the space with the lifetime of the agent responsible for them. This can lead to difficulty maintaining application-level invariants, even though the system ensures data-structure-level integrity of the tuplespace itself. For an example, see the explicit clean-up action as the process prepares to exit (lines 15–17). In addition, the effect of exceptions inside reactions remains unclear in all tuplespace languages. Turning to external DBMS, we see that the situation is worse. There, setting aside the possibility of abusing triggers for the purpose, changes in state do not directly have an effect on the flow of control in the system. Connections between programs and the DBMS are viewed as entirely transient and records inserted are viewed as sacrosanct once committed.
(C8) Tuplespaces take a wide variety of approaches to failure-handling (Bakken and Schlichting 1995; Rowstron 2000). In Lime, in particular, tuples are localized to tuplespace fragments associated with individual agents. These fragments automatically combine when agents find themselves in a common context. Agent failure or disconnection removes its tuplespace fragment from the aggregate whole. While Lime does not offer the ability to react to removal of individual tuples, it can be configured to insert _host_gone tuples into the space when it detects a disconnection. By reacting to appearance of _host_gone tuples, applications can perform coarse-grained cleaning of the knowledgebase after disconnection or failure. Separately, TOTAM's per-tuple leases (González Boix et al. 2014) give an upper bound on tuple lifetime. Our example chat room is written in an imaginary tuplespace dialect lacking fine-grained reactions to tuple withdrawal, and thus inserts Absent records upon termination (lines 4, 8, and 17 in figure 8) to maintain its invariants.
(C6) Reactions and copy-collect allow maintenance of eventually-consistent views and production of consistent snapshots of the contents of a tuplespace, respectively. However, operations like rd are not only non-deterministic but non-atomic in the sense that by the time the existence of a particular tuple is signaled, that tuple may have been removed by a third party. Tuplespaces, then, offer some mechanisms by which the consistency of the various local replicas of tuplespace contents may be maintained and reasoned about. In contrast, most DBMS systems do not offer such mechanisms for reasoning about and maintaining a client’s local copy of data authoritatively stored at a server. Instead, a common approach is to use transactions to atomically query and then alter information. The effect of this is to bound the lifetime of local views on global state, ensuring that while they exist, they fit in to the transactional framework on offer, and that after their containing transaction is over, they cannot escape to directly influence further computation.
(C9) Detection of demand for some resource can be done using tuples indicating demand and corresponding reactions. The associated callback can allocate and offer access to the demanded resource. In systems like TOTAM, retraction of a demand tuple can be interpreted as the end of the need for the resource it describes; in less advanced tuplespaces, release of resources must be arranged by other means.
(C10) Both tuplespaces and external databases give excellent visibility into application state, on the condition that the tuplespace or database is the sole locus of such state. In cases where this assumption holds, the entirety of the state of the group is visible as the current contents of the shared store. This unlocks the possibility of rich tooling for querying and modifying this state. Such tooling is a well-integrated part of existing DBMS ecosystems. In principle, recording and display of traces of interactions with the shared store could also be produced and used in visualization or debugging.
(C11) The original tuplespace model of Linda lacked non-blocking operations, leading it to suffer from usability flaws well-known from the context of synchronous IPC. As Elphinstone and Heiser write,
While certainly minimal, and simple conceptually and in implementation, experience taught us significant drawbacks of [the model of synchronous IPC as the only mechanism]: it forces a multi-threaded design onto otherwise simple systems, with the resulting synchronisation complexities. (Elphinstone and Heiser 2013)
These problems are significantly mitigated by the addition of Lime's reactions and the later developments of TOTAM's context-aware tuplespace programming. Generally speaking, tuplespace-based designs have moved from synchronous early approaches toward asynchronous operations, and this has had benefits for extending the interactions of a given component as well as extending the scope of a given conversation. External DBMS systems are generally neutral when it comes to programming APIs, but many popular client libraries offer synchronous query facilities only, lack support for asynchronous operations, and offer only limited support for triggers.
(C12) External DBMS systems offer outstanding support for long-lived application state, making partial restarts and partial code upgrades a normal part of life with a DBMS application. Transactionality helps ensure that application restarts do not corrupt shared state. Tuplespaces in principle offer similarly good support.
Finally, the two models, viewed abstractly, suffer from a lack of proper integration with host languages. The original presentation of tuplespaces positions the idea as a complete, independent language design; in reality, tuplespaces tend to show up as libraries for existing languages. Databases are also almost always accessed via a library. As a result, developers must often follow design patterns to close the gap between the linguistic capabilities of the language and their programming needs. Worse, they also have to deploy several different coordination mechanisms, without support from their chosen language and without a clear way of resolving any incompatibilities.
The fact space model (Mostinckx et al. 2007) synthesizes rule-based systems and a rich tuplespace model with actor-based programming in a mobile, ad-hoc networking setting to yield a powerful form of context-aware programming. The initial implementation of the model, dubbed Crime, integrates a RETE-based rule engine (Forgy 1982) with the TOTAM tuplespace and a functional reactive programming (FRP) library (Elliott and Hudak 1997; Bainomugisha et al. 2013) atop AmbientTalk, an object-oriented actor language in the style of E (Van Cutsem et al. 2014). AmbientTalk is unusual among actor languages for its consideration of multicast communication and coordination. In its role as “language laboratory”, it has incorporated ideas from many other programming paradigms. AmbientTalk adds distributed service discovery, error handling, anycast and multicast to an actor-style core language intended for a mobile, ad-hoc network context; TOTAM supplements this with a distributed database, and the rule engine brings logic programming to the table.
In the words of Mostinckx et al.,
The Fact Space model is a coordination model which provides applications with a federated fact space: a distributed knowledge base containing logic facts which are implicitly made available for all devices within reach. [...] [T]he Fact Space model combines the notion of a federated fact space with a logic coordination language. (Mostinckx, Lombide Carreton and De Meuter 2008)
Tuples placed within the TOTAM tuplespace are interpreted as ground facts in the Prolog logic-programming sense. Insertions correspond to Prolog's assert; removals to retract. TOTAM's reactions, which unlike Lime may be triggered on either insertion or removal of tuples, allow connection of changes in the tuplespace to the inputs to the RETE-based rule engine, yielding forward-chaining logic programming driven by activity in the common space.
Figure 9 sketches a pseudo-code user agent program. An actor running userAgent is created for each connecting user. As it starts up, it registers two reactions. The first (lines 2–3) reacts to appearance and disappearance of Present tuples. The second (line 4) reacts to each Message tuple appearing in the space. Line 5 places a Present tuple representing the current user in the tuplespace, where it will be detected by peers. Lines 6–10 enter a loop, waiting for user input and replacing the user's previous Message, if any, with a new one.
(C1; C2; C7) The TOTAM tuplespace offers multi-party communication, and the rule engine allows installation of pattern-based reactions to events, resulting in automatic demultiplexing and making for a natural connection from data flow to associated control flow. Where an interaction serves to open a conversational frame for a sub-conversation, additional reactions may be installed; however, there is no linguistic representation of such conversational frames, meaning that any logical association between conversations must be manually expressed and maintained.
(C3; C4) AmbientTalk's reactive context-aware collections (Mostinckx, Lombide Carreton and De Meuter 2008) allow automatic integration of conclusions drawn by the rule engine with collection objects such as sets and hash tables. Each collection object is manifested as a behavior in FRP terminology, meaning that changes to the collection can in turn trigger downstream reactions depending on the collection's value. However, achieving the effect of propagating changes in local variables as changes to tuples in the shared space is left to programmers.
(C5; C6; C8) The Fact Space model removes tuples upon component failure. Conclusions drawn from rules depending on removed facts are withdrawn in turn. Programs thereby enjoy logical consistency after partial failure. However, automatic retraction of tuples is performed only in cases of disconnection. When a running component is engaged in multiple conversations, and one of them comes to a close, there is no mechanism provided by which facts relating to the terminated conversation may be automatically cleaned up. Programmers manually delete obsolescent facts or turn to a strategy borrowed from the E language, namely creation of a separate actor for each sub-conversation. If they choose this option, however, the interactions among the resulting plethora of actors may increase overall system complexity.
(C9) The ability to react to removal as well as insertion of tuples allows programs to match supply of some service to demand, by interpreting particular assertions as demand for some resource. This can, in principle, allow automatic resource management; however, this is only true if all allocation of and interaction with such resources is done via the tuple space. For example, if the actor sketched in figure 9 were to crash, then absent explicit exception-handling code, the connected socket would leak, remaining open. Additionally, in situations where tuples may be interpreted simultaneously at a coarse-grained and fine-grained level, some care must be taken in interpreting tuple arrival and departure events. For example, imagine a slight enhancement of our example program, where we include a user-chosen status message in our Present tuples. In order to react both to appearance and disappearance of a user as well as a change in a user's status, we must interpret Present tuples as sketched in figure 10. There, Present tuples are aggregated by their who fields, ignoring their status fields, in addition to being interpreted entire. The presentUsers collection serves as intermediate state for a kind of SELECT DISTINCT operation, indicating whether any Present tuples for a particular user exist at all in the tuplespace. In the retraction handler (lines 10–14) we explicitly check whether any Present tuples for the user concerned remain in the space, only updating presentUsers if none are left. This avoids incorrectly claiming that a user has left the chat room when they have merely altered their status message.
An alternative approach to the problem is to make use of a feature of Crime not yet described. The Crime implementation of the fact space model exposes the surface syntax of the included rule engine to the programmer, allowing logic program fragments to be written using a Prolog-like syntax and integrated with a main program written in AmbientTalk. This could allow a small program
UserPresent(?who) :- Present(?who,?status).
to augment the tuplespace with UserPresent tuples whenever any Present tuple for a given user exists at all. On the AmbientTalk side, programs would then react separately to appearance and disappearance of UserPresent and Present tuples.
(C10) Like tuplespaces generally, the fact space model has great potential for tool support and system state visualization. However, only those aspects of a program communicating via the underlying tuplespace benefit from its invariants. In the case of the Crime implementation based on AmbientTalk, only selected inter-component interactions travel via the tuplespace and rule engine, leaving other interactions out of reach of potential fact-space-based tools. Programmers must carefully combine reasoning based on the invariants of the fact space model with the properties of the other mechanisms available for programmer use, such as AmbientTalk's own inter-actor message delivery, service discovery and broadcast facilities.
(C11) Extending a conversation to new components and introducing an existing component to an additional conversation are both readily supported by the fact space model as implemented in Crime. However, because no automatic support for release of conversation-associated state exists (other than outright termination of an entire actor), programmers must carefully consider the interactions among individual components. When one of an actor's conversations comes to a close but other conversations remain active, the programmer must make sure to release local conversational state and remove associated shared tuples, but only when they are provably inaccessible to the remaining conversations.
(C12) Crime's AmbientTalk foundation is inspired by E, and can benefit directly from research done on persistence and object upgrade in E-like settings (Yoo et al. 2012; Miller, Van Cutsem and Tulloh 2013).
|K3bis Mechanism||Shared memory||Message-passing||Tuplespaces||Fact spaces||Ideal|
|C1 Conversation group size||arbitrary||point-to-point||arbitrary||arbitrary||arbitrary|
|C3 Integration of state change||automatic||manual||semi-automatic||automatic||automatic|
|C4 Signaling of state change||manual||manual||manual||manual||automatic|
|K4 Robustness||Shared memory||Message-passing||Tuplespaces||Fact spaces||Ideal|
|C5 Maintain state integrity||manual||manual||manual||semi-automatic||automatic|
|C6 Ensure replica consistency||trivial||manual||semi-automatic||semi-automatic||automatic|
|C7 Data control flow||no||yes||yes||yes||yes|
|C8 Control data flow||no||partial||no||coarse-grained||fine-grained|
|C9 Resource management||manual||manual||manual||coarse-grained||fine-grained|
|K6 Operability||Shared memory||Message-passing||Tuplespaces||Fact spaces||Ideal|
|C10 Debuggability/visualizability||poor||wide range||potentially good||potentially good||good|
Figure 11 summarizes this chapter's analysis. Each of the first four columns in the table shows, from the programmer's point of view, the support they can expect from a programming language taking the corresponding approach to concurrency. Each row corresponds to one of the properties of concurrency models introduced in figure 3. A few terms used in the table require explanation. An entry of “manual” indicates that the programmer is offered no special support for the property. An entry of “semi-automatic” indicates that some form of support for the property is available, at least for specialized cases, but that general support is again left to the programmer. For example, channel-based languages can automatically demultiplex conversations, but only so long as channels correspond one-to-one to conversations, and the fact space model automatically preserves integrity of conversational state, but only where the end of an actor's participation in a conversation is marked by disconnection from the shared space. Finally, an entry of “automatic” indicates that an approach to concurrency offers strong, general support for the property. An example is the fact space model's ability to integrate changes in the shared space with local variables via its reactive context-aware collections.
While the first four columns address the properties of existing models of concurrency, the final column of the table identifies an “ideal” point in design space for us to aim towards in the design of new models.
(C1; C2; C3; C4) We would like a flexible communications mechanism accommodating many-to-many as well as one-to-one conversations. A component should be able to engage in multiple conversations, without having to jump through hoops to do so. Events should map to event handlers directly in terms of their domain-level meaning. Since conversations come with conversational frames, and conversational frames scope state and behavior, such frames and their interrelationships should be explicit in program code. As conversations proceed, the associated conversational state evolves. Changes to that state should automatically be integrated with local views on it, and changes in local state should be able to be straightforwardly shared with peers. Agents should be offered the opportunity to react to all kinds of state changes.
(C5; C6) We would like to automatically enforce application-level invariants regarding shared, conversational state. In case of partial failure, we should be able to identify and discard damaged portions of conversational state. Where replicas of a piece of conversational state exist, we would like to be able to reason about their mutual consistency. (C7; C8) Hewitt’s criterion that “control and data flow are inseparable” should hold as far as possible, both in terms of control flow being manifestly influenced by data flow and in terms of translation of control effects such as exceptions into visible changes in the common conversational context. (C9) Since conversations often involve associated resources, we would like to be able to connect allocation and release of resources with the lifecycles of conversational frames.
(C10; C11; C12) Given the complexity of concurrent programming, we would like the ability to build tools to gain insight into system state and to visualize both correct and abnormal behavior for debugging and development purposes. Modification of our programs should easily accommodate changes in the scope of a given conversation among components, as well as changes to the set of interactions a given component is engaged in. Finally, robustness involves tolerance of partial failure and partial restarts; where long-lived application state exists, support for code upgrades should also be offered.
Syndicate is a design in two parts. The first part is called the dataspace model. This model offers a mechanism for communication and coordination within groups of concurrent components, plus a mechanism for organizing such groups and relating them to each other in hierarchical assemblies. The second part is called the facet model. This model introduces new language features to address the challenges of describing an actor's participation in multiple simultaneous conversations.
Chapter 4 fleshes out the informal description of the dataspace model of section 2.5 with a formal semantics. The semantics describes a hierarchical structure of components in the shape of a tree. Intermediate nodes in the tree are called dataspaces. From the perspective of the dataspace model, leaf nodes in the tree are modeled as (pure) event-transducer functions; their internal structure is abstracted away.
Chapter 5 describes the facet model part of the Syndicate design, addressing the internal structure of the leaf actors of the dataspace model. Several possible means of interfacing a programming language to a dataspace exist. The simplest approach is to directly encode the primitives of the model in the language of choice, but this forces the programmer to attend to much detail that can be handled automatically by a suitable set of linguistic constructs. The chapter proposes such constructs, augments a generic imperative language model with them, and gives a formal semantics for the result. Together, the dataspace and facet models form a complete design for extending a non-concurrent host language with concurrency.
The dataspace model began life under the moniker “Network Calculus” (NC) (Garnock-Jones, Tobin-Hochstadt and Felleisen 2014), a formal model of publish-subscribe networking incorporating elements of presence as such, rather than the more general state-replication system described in the follow-up paper (Garnock-Jones and Felleisen 2016) and refined in this dissertation. The presentation in this chapter draws heavily on that of the latter paper, amending it in certain areas to address issues that were not evident at the time.
Figure 12 displays the syntax of dataspace model programs. Each program is an instruction to create a single actor: either a leaf actor or a dataspace actor. A leaf actor has the shape . Its initial assertions are described by the set , while its boot function embodies the first few computations the actor will perform. The boot function usually yields an record specifying a sequence of initial actions along with an existentially-quantified package . This latter specifies the type of the actor's private state, the initial private state value , and the actor's permanent event-transducing behavior function . Alternatively, the boot function may decide that the actor should immediately terminate, in which case it yields an record bearing a sequence of final actions for the short-lived actor to perform before it becomes permanently inert. A dataspace actor has the shape and creates a group of communicating actors sharing a new assertion store. Each in the sequence of programs contained in the definition of a dataspace actor will form one of the initial actors placed in the group as it starts its existence.
Each leaf actor behavior function consumes an event plus its actor's current state. The function computes either a record, namely a sequence of desired actions plus an updated state value, or an record carrying a sequence of desired final actions alone in case the actor decides to request its own termination. We require that such behavior functions be total. If the base language supports exceptions, any uncaught exceptions or similar must be translated into an explicit termination request. If this happens, we say that the actor has crashed, even though it returned a valid termination request in an orderly way.
In the -calculus, a program is usually a combination of an inert part—a function value—and an input value. In the dataspace model, delivering an event to an actor is analogous to such an application. However, the pure -calculus has no analogue of the actions produced by dataspace model actors.
A dataspace model actor may produce actions like those in the traditional actor model, namely sending messages and spawning new actors , but it may also produce state change notifications (SCNs) . These convey sets of assertions an actor wishes to publish to its containing dataspace.
As a dataspace interprets an SCN action, it updates its assertion store. It tracks every assertion made by each contained actor. It not only maps each actor to its current assertions, but each active assertion to the set of actors asserting it. The assertions of each actor, when combined with the assertions of its peers, form the overall set of assertions present in the dataspace.
When an actor issues an SCN action, the new assertion set completely replaces all previous assertions made by that actor. To retract an assertion, the actor issues a state change notification action lacking the assertion concerned. For example, imagine an actor whose most-recently-issued SCN action conveyed the assertion set . By issuing an SCN action , the actor would achieve the effect of retracting the assertion . Alternatively, issuing an SCN would augment the actor's assertion set in the assertion store with a new assertion . Finally, the SCN describes assertion of simultaneous with retraction of .
We take the liberty of using wildcard as a form of assertion set comprehension. For now, when we write expressions such as , we mean the set of all pairs having the atom on the left. In addition, we use three syntactic shorthands as constructors for commonly-used structures: , and are abbreviations for tuples of the atoms observe, outbound and inbound, respectively, with the value . Thus, means .
When an actor issues an assertion of shape , it expresses an interest in being informed of all assertions . In other words, an assertion acts as a subscription to . Similarly, specifies interest in being informed about assertions of shape , and so on. The dataspace sends a state change notification event to an actor each time the set of assertions matching the actor's interests changes.
An actor's subscriptions are assertions like any other. State change notifications thus give an actor control over its subscriptions as well as over any other information it wishes to make available to its peers or acquire from them.
We use text to denote Dataspace ISWIM variables and to denote literal atoms and strings. In places where the model demands a sequence of values, for example the actions returned from a behavior function, our language supplies a single list value . We include list comprehensions because actors frequently need to construct, filter, and transform sequences of values. Similarly, we add syntax for sets , including set comprehensions , and for tuples , to represent the sets and tuples needed by the model.
We define functions using patterns over the language's values. For example, the leaf behavior function definition
If some peer Y previously asserted , this assertion is immediately delivered to X in a state change notification event. Infinite sets of interests thus act as query patterns over the shared dataspace.
Redundant assertions do not cause change notifications. If actor Z subsequently also asserts , no notification is sent to X, since X has already been informed that has been asserted. However, if Z instead asserts , then a change notification is sent to X containing both asserted prices.
Symmetrically, it is not until the last assertion of shape for some particular is retracted from the dataspace that X is sent a notification about the lack of assertions of shape .
When an actor crashes, all its assertions are automatically retracted. By implication, if no other actor is making the same assertions at the time, then peers interested in the crashing actor's assertions are sent a state change notification event informing them of the retraction(s).
To read the value of the box, clients either include an appropriate assertion in their initially declared interests or issue it later:
The behavior of the and actors, when run together in a dataspace, is to repeatedly increment the number held in the .
4.3Our next example demonstrates demand matching. The need to measure demand for some service and allocate resources in response appears in different guises in a wide variety of concurrent systems. Here, we imagine a client, , beginning a conversation with some service by adding to the shared dataspace. In response, the service should create a worker actor to talk to .
The “listening” part of the service is spawned as follows:
4.4Our final example demonstrates an architectural pattern seen in operating systems, web browsers, and cloud computing. Figure 13 sketches the architecture of a program implementing a word processing application with multiple open documents, alongside other applications and a file server actor. The “Kernel” dataspace is at the bottom of this tree-like representation of containment.
The hierarchical nature of the dataspace model means that each dataspace has a containing dataspace in turn. Actors may interrogate and augment assertions held in containing dataspaces by prefixing assertions relating to the th relative dataspace layer with “outbound” markers . Dataspaces relay -labeled assertions outward. Some of these assertions may describe interest in assertions existing at an outer layer. Any assertions matching such interests are relayed back in by the dataspace, which prefixes them with an “inbound” marker to distinguish them from local assertions.
In this example, actors representing open documents communicate directly with each other via a local dataspace scoped to the word processor, but only indirectly with other actors in the system. When the actor for a document decides that it is time to save its content to the file system, it issues a message such as
The file server responds to two protocols, one for writing files and one for reading file contents and broadcasting changes to files as they happen. These protocols are articulated as two subscriptions:
The second indicates interest in subscriptions in the shared dataspace, an interest in interest in file contents. This is how the server learns that peers wish to be kept informed of the contents of files under its control. The file server is told each time some peer asserts interest in the contents of a file. In response, it asserts facts of the form
Our examples illustrate the key properties of the dataspace model and their unique combination. Firstly, the box and demand-matcher examples show that conversations may naturally involve many parties, generalizing the actor model's point-to-point conversations. At the same time, the file server example shows that conversations are more precisely bounded than those of traditional actors. Each of its dataspaces crisply delimits its contained conversations, each of which may therefore use a task-appropriate language of discourse.
Secondly, all three examples demonstrate the shared-dataspace aspect of the model. Assertions made by one actor can influence other actors, but cannot directly alter or remove assertions made by others. The box's content is made visible through an assertion in the dataspace, and any actor that knows can retrieve the assertion. The demand-matcher responds to changes in the dataspace that denote the existence of new conversations. The file server makes file contents available through assertions in the (outer) dataspace, in response to clients placing subscriptions in that dataspace.
Finally, the model places an upper bound on the lifetimes of entries in each shared space. Items may be asserted and retracted by actors at will in response to incoming events, but when an actor crashes, all of its assertions are automatically retracted. If the box actor were to crash during a computation, the assertion describing its content would be visibly withdrawn, and peers could take some compensating action. The demand matcher can be enhanced to monitor supply as well as demand and to take corrective action if some worker instance exits unexpectedly. The combination of this temporal bound on assertions with the model's state change notifications gives good failure-signaling and fault-tolerance properties, improving on those seen in Erlang (Armstrong 2003).
The semantics of the dataspace model is most easily understood via an abstract machine. Figure 14 shows the syntax of machine configurations, plus a metafunction , which loads programs in into starting machine states in , and an inert behavior function .
The reduction relation operates on actor states , which are triples of a queue of events destined for the actor, the actor's behavior and internal state , and a queue of actions issued by the actor and destined for processing by its containing dataspace. An actor's behavior and state can take on one of two forms. For a leaf actor, behavior and state are kept together with the type of the actor's private state value in an existential package . For a dataspace actor, behavior is determined by the reduction rules of the model, and its state is a configuration .
Dataspace configurations comprise three registers: a queue of actions to be performed , each labeled with some identifier denoting the origin of the action; the current contents of the assertion store ; and a sequence of actors residing within the configuration. Each actor is assigned a local label , also called a location, scoped strictly to the configuration and meaningless outside. Labels are required to be locally-unique within a given configuration. They are never made visible to leaf actors: labels are an internal matter, used solely as part of the behavior of dataspace actors. The identifiers marking each queued action in the configuration are either the labels of some contained actor or the special identifier denoting an action resulting from some external force, such as an event arriving from the configuration's containing configuration.
The reduction relation drives actors toward quiescent and even inert states. Figure 14 defines these syntactic classes, which are roughly analogous to values in the call-by-value -calculus. A state is quiescent when its sequence of actions is empty, and it is inert when, besides being quiescent, it has no more events to process and cannot take any further internal reductions.
The reductions of the dataspace model are defined by the following rules. For convenient reference, the rules are also shown together in figure 15. Rules and deliver an event to a leaf actor and update its state based on the results. Rule delivers an event to a dataspace actor. Rule collects actions produced by contained actors in a dataspace to a central queue, and rules , , and interpret previously-gathered actions. Finally, rule allows contained actors to take a step if they are not already inert.
4.5Rule A leaf actor's behavior function, given event and private state value , may yield a instruction, i.e. . In this case, the actor's state is updated in place and newly-produced actions are enqueued for processing:
4.6Rule Alternatively, a leaf actor's behavior function may yield an instruction in response to event , i.e. . In this case, the terminating actor is replaced with a behavior and its final few actions are enqueued:
4.7Rule When an event arrives for a dataspace, it is labeled with the special location and enqueued for subsequent interpretation.
4.8Inbound event transformationThe metafunction transforms each such incoming event by prepending an “inbound” marker to each assertion contained in the event. This marks the assertions as pertaining to the next outermost dataspace, rather than to the local dataspace.
4.9Rule The rule reads from the queue of actions produced by a particular actor for interpretation by its dataspace. It marks each action with the label of the actor before enqueueing it in the dataspace's pending action queue for processing.
Now that we have considered event delivery and action production and collection, we may turn to action interpretation. The and rules are central. They both depend on metafunctions (short for “broadcast”) and to transform queued actions into pending events for local actors and the containing dataspace, respectively. Before we examine the supporting metafunctions, we will examine the two rules themselves.
4.11Rule A queued state change notification action not only completely replaces the assertions associated with in the shared dataspace but also inserts a state change notification event into the event queues of interested local actors via . Because may have made “outbound” assertions labeled with , also prepares a state change notification for the wider environment, using .
4.11This is the only rule to update a dataspace's . In addition, because 's assertion set is completely replaced, it is here that retraction of previously-asserted items takes effect.
4.12Rule The rule interprets send-message actions . The metafunction is again used to deliver the message to interested peers, and relays the message on to the containing dataspace if it happens to be “outbound”-labeled with .
4.13Event broadcastThe metafunction computes the consequences for an actor labeled of an action performed by another party labeled . When it deals with a state change notification action , the entire aggregate shared dataspace is projected according to the asserted interests of . The results of the projection are assembled into a state change notification event, but are enqueued only if the event would convey new information to . When deals with a message action , a corresponding message event is enqueued for only if has previously asserted interest in .